Waste is a significant component of environment—also known as rubbish, garbage, junks, litter, and trash, which are considered unwanted or useless materials. While waste is related to the development of human populations, litter is the improper disposal of wastes.
Waste disposal has great environmental effects that can result to serious problems if not handled properly. In the UK, wastes are mostly buried in landfills, which are holes in the ground or old quarries. There are some wastes that rot, but not all will, and these will gradually produce bad odor or produce methane gasses that can lead to the greenhouse effect. Leachate from decomposed wastes can also contribute to pollution, and improper management of these landfills can attract pests.
Incineration as a method of waste disposal can cause more problems because plastics are inclined to yield toxic substances like dioxins when they are burned. Gases from these incinerations contain heavy metals and toxins. Because of the serious effects of these gases and toxins to life, there have been many advocacies that have discouraged the use of incineration.
Governments promote proper waste management. It is based on the notion that there are proper means of disposing of wastes other than gathering and dumping them in landfills. This manner of waste management involves a cycle: monitoring, collecting, transporting, processing, and disposing or recycling.
Monitoring is determining the waste management needs, the recycling opportunities, and better means to minimize waste output and assessing how waste minimization is progressing.
Collection is a process that assures that bin containers will not overflow. There is a required bin size and service frequency to avoid overspill or extreme odor. The correct bins are also color-coded with stickers for identification. Coordination between the waste company and clients is essential. Garbage bins must be within reach of the collectors within the agreed time.
Transportation is a system of transporting the wastes with authorization and the ability to bring the wastes from the residence to landfills or a processing facility. The vehicle that will transport the waste must be designed for this purpose. In doing this, the vehicles, the drivers, and the companies need to produce licenses and approval from authorized government agencies. Safety standards are essential to transport clinical and harmful wastes. Drivers are required to undergo some training to handle emergency situations that may arise.
Processing is a method of separating the recyclables for treatment, and after this treatment, these treated wastes are used as raw materials for production in factories. Non-recyclable wastes will not undergo this process and are instead sent to landfills. Liquid and harmful wastes are sent to treatment facilities to process as less hazardous to the general public and environment.
Disposal or Recycling is a system of disposing of non-recyclables to landfills. These landfill areas must be approved by legal agencies that will make sure that particular wastes are buried according to standard requirements, thereby avoiding the introduction of harmful chemicals into soil, water tables, water systems, air, and pipe systems. Products from the recyclable wastes sold as products, bought by some companies to sustain the environment and natural resources.
Waste management is a science that deals with the logistics, environmental effects, social responsibility, and the cost of the waste disposal of an organization.